Knowledge for All
Browse through my philosophy of life
my philosophy of life is to be in the mode of reading (critical,reflective and analytical reading).
it can also be yours too(get the feeling).
Thumb through my history in life
i am trying to be a perfect gentle man in future and responsible person in life.
history about nigeria
Nigeria populations in2000-2003, is about 133,881,700
Ibadan, city in southwestern Nigeria, capital of Oyo State. Inhabited mainly by the Yoruba, Ibadan, which has an airport and is on the railroad line linking Lagos with Kano, is a major transit point between the coast and areas to the north. It is also the center of trade for a farming area producing cacao, cotton, timber, rubber, and palm oil. Industries include the processing of agricultural products, tire retreading, and the manufacture of cigarettes. The University of Ibadan (founded as a college of the University of London in 1948 and as an autonomous university in 1962) and several libraries and research institutes are located in the city. Population (2000 -2003)estimate as 1,731,000.
According to Hornby, “Policy is a plan of action agreed or chosen by a political party, a business, etc.” Typically describing policy as a deliberate plan of action to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome. The term is normally referred to as either procedure or protocol. “Where as a policy will contain the 'what and the why' procedures or protocols contain the 'what' the 'how' the 'where' and the 'when'” says Huizinga.Therefore, the term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, and individuals. Policy merely guides actions toward those that are most likely to achieve a desired outcome.
RUSSIAIt is also officially known as the “Russian Federation”, is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. Russia is by far the largest country in the world, covering more than a ninth of the Earth's land area. Russia is also the ninth most populous nation in the world with 142 million people. BRIEF HISTORYThe nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a noble Viking warrior class and their descendants, the first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', arose in the 9th century and adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium.The most powerful successor state to Kievan Rus' was Moscow, which served as the main force in the Russian reunification process and independence struggle against the Golden Horde. Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.Russia established worldwide power and influence from the times of the Russian Empire to being the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, that played a decisive role in the allied victory in World War II. The Russian Federation was founded following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Soviet state. Russia has the world's 12th largest economy by nominal GDP or the seventh largest by purchasing power parity, with the fifth largest nominal military budget. It is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the world's largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR)The Russian SFSR together with three other Soviet republics formed the Soviet Union on 30 December 1922. Out of the 15 republics that later constituted the Soviet Union, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the largest republic in terms of size and making up over half of the total USSR population, dominated the Soviet Union for its entire 69-year history; the USSR was often referred to, though incorrectly, as "Russia" and its people as "Russians".Prior to 1991, the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world, but during its last years it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits and explosive growth in money supply leading to inflation. From 1985 onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize the country and make it more democratic. However, this unexpectedly led to the rise of nationalist movements and dissolution of the Soviet Union.In August 1991, an unsuccessful military coup, directed against Gorbachev and aimed at preserving the Soviet Union, instead led to its collapse. In Russian SFSR, Boris Yeltsin came to power and declared the end of socialist rule. The USSR splintered into fifteen independent republics and was officially dissolved in December 1991. Boris Yeltsin was elected the President of Russia in June 1991, in the first direct presidential election in Russian history.RUSSIAN FEDERATIONDuring and after the disintegration of the USSR, when wide-ranging reforms including privatisation and market and trade liberalization were being undertaken, the Russian economy went through a major crisis. The period was characterized by deep contraction of output, with GDP declining by roughly 50% between 1990 and the end of 1995 and industrial output declining by over 50%. In October 1991, Yeltsin announced that Russia would proceed with radical, market-oriented reform along the lines of "shock therapy", as recommended by the United States and International Monetary Fund. Price controls were abolished, privatization was started. Millions plunged into poverty, from 1.5% of the population living in poverty in the late Soviet era, to 39%-49% by mid-1993. FOREIGN POLICY OF THE REGIME OF THE FEDERAL SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL REPUBLIC (RUSSIAN FEDERATION) AFTER 1991
On November 2, 2005, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace hosted a meeting entitled “Russian Foreign Policy: A New Stage of Development” with Konstantin Kosachev, Chairman of the Committee on International Affairs, State Duma of the Russian Federation. Anders Aslund, Director of the Carnegie Russian and Eurasian Program, chaired the session. Kosachev’s remarks are summarized below:Russian foreign policy is now entering a fourth stage. The first three were associated with Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, Foreign Minister Yevgeny Primakov, and President Vladimir Putin during his first term, respectively. In the first two stages Russia was weak and its foreign policy reactive. In the third Russian foreign policy became more active as the country strengthened its political will and developed the energy sector. Now Putin faces a choice between realpolitik, in which might is right, and the post-World War II structures of international security cooperation... The 1990s discredited democracy and liberal economy in Russia. The West made a big mistake by not supporting Russia enough in this period. Democrats have at best ten to fifteen percent support in Russia and this is disappointing. Restoring belief in democracy will take time. Hopefully the West won’t make the same mistake again. Western countries should provide support along with criticism, or they make it difficult to keep Russia “on the democratic rails.”Therefore, the foreign policy is determined by the President of Russia and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The uppermost priority of the foreign policy course of Russia is to protect the interests of the individual and the society.MAJOR OBJECTIVES IN THE FOREIGN POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATIONWithin the framework of the process, the main efforts should be directed towards attaining the following main objectives:1. To ensure reliable security of the country, to preserve and strengthen its sovereignty and territorial integrity, to achieve firm and prestigious positions in the world community, most fully consistent with the interests of the Russian Federation as a great power, as one of the most influential centres of the modem world, and which are necessary for the growth of its political, economic, intellectual and spiritual potential;2. To influence general world processes with the aim of forming a stable, just ad democratic world order, built on generally recognized norms of international law, including, first of all, the goals and principles in the U.N. Charter, on equitable and partnership relations among states;3. To create favourable external conditions for steady development of Russia, for improving its economy, enhancing the standards of living of the population, successfully carrying out democratic transformations, strengthening the basis of the constitutional system and observing individual rights and freedoms;4. To form a good-neighbour belt along the perimeter of Russia's borders, to promote elimination of the existing and prevent the emergence of potential hotbeds of tension and conflicts in regions adjacent to the Russian Federation;5. To seek concord and coinciding interests with foreign countries and interstate associations in the process of resolving the tasks that are determined by the national priorities of Russia, and on this basis, to build a system of partnership and allied relations that improve the conditions and parameters of international cooperation;6. To uphold in every possible way the rights and interests of Russian citizens and fellow countrymen abroad; and7. To promote a positive perception of the Russian Federation in the world, to popularize the Russian language and culture of the peoples of Russia in foreign states.PRIORITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN RESOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMSA successful foreign policy of the Russian Federation must be based on maintaining observance of a reasonable balance between its objectives and possibilities for attaining these objectives. Concentration of politico-diplomatic, military, economic, financial and other means on resolving foreign political tasks must be commensurate with their real significance for Russia's national interests, while the scope of participation in international affairs must be adequate to the actual contribution to strengthening the country's positions. The diversity and complexity of international problems and the existence of crisis situations assume a timely evaluation of the priorities of each of them in the foreign political activity of the Russian Federation. There is a need for enhancing the efficiency of political, legal, foreign economic and other instruments for protecting the state sovereignty of Russia and its national economy in conditions of globalization. This can be seen in the following ways:1. Forming a new world order Russia is interested in a stable system of international relations based on principles of justice, mutual respect and mutually advantageous cooperation. Such a system is called upon to ensure reliable security for each member of the world community in political, military, economic, humanitarian and other areas. Russia attaches great importance to its participation in the Group of 8 of the most industrially developed states. Regarding the mechanism of consultations and coordinating positions on the most important problems of the day as one of the important means of upholding and advancing its foreign political interests, the Russian Federation intends to build up its cooperation with partners in this forum.2. Strengthening international security Russia calls supports for further decrease of the role of the power factor in international relations, along with the simultaneous enhancement of strategic and regional stability. Toward this end, the Russian Federation shall: unswervingly fulfill the commitments its has taken upon itself in compliance with treaties and agreements in the spheres of limiting and reducing armaments, and its participation in negotiating working out and concluding new accords consistent both with its national interests and the security interests of other states;3. International economic relations The main priority in the foreign policy of the Russian Federation in international economic relations is to promote the development of the national economy, which, in conditions of globalization, is unthinkable without broad integration of Russia in the system of world economic ties. In order to achieve these objectives, it is necessary: To ensure favourable external conditions for forming a market-oriented economy in our country, and the establishing a renewed foreign economic specialization of the Russian Federation, one that would guarantee maximum economic returns on its participation in the international division of labour.4. Human rights and international relations Committed to the values of a democratic society, including respect for human rights and a freedom, Russia sees its goals as being the following: To seek respect for human rights and freedoms the world over on the basis of respecting the norms of international law; To protect the rights and interests of Russian citizens and compatriots abroad on the basis of international law and operative bilateral agreements. The Russian Federation will seek to obtain adequate guarantees for the rights and freedoms of compatriots in states where they permanently reside and to maintain and develop comprehensive ties with them and their organizations.5. Information support for foreign policy activities
An important area in the foreign policy activities of the Russian Federation is communicating to the broad sectors of the world public objective and accurate information about its positions on the main international problems, foreign policy initiatives and actions by the Russian Federation, as well as on the accomplishments of Russian culture, science, and intellectual work. Coming to the fore is the goal of forming a positive perception of Russia abroad and a friendly attitude to it.CONCLUSION
It is pertinent to conclude that the experience people as a country is an experience that must be used to equipped other nations that are still struggling behind the bar. The Russian Federation right from its origin of the Soviet Union in 1922 to 1991 of the beginning of the Russian Federation has record greatness both in goodness and badness of life. Thence, all these are resolved through the policy of the new Russia in the world.
 Hornby, A. S. (Ed.). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English: ‘Policy’. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Sixth Edition, P. 899.
 Huizinga, Johan (1924). The Waning of the Middle: The Political and Military Value of Chivalrous policy. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola. P. 82.
 "Russia". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/513251/Russia. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
 Huizinga, Johan (1924). The Waning of the Middle Ages: The Political and Military Value of Chivalrous policy. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola. P. 96.
 Glenn E. Curtis (ed.) (1998). "Russia: A Country Study: Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods". Washington, DC: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. P. 59.
 "Country Profile: Russia". Foreign & Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/about-the-fco/country-profiles/europe/russia/. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
 Branko Milanovic (1998). Income, Inequality, and Poverty During the Transformation from Planned to Market Economy. The World Bank. pp. 186–189.